Using gganimate with ggmap

Combining gganimate with ggmap can be used to create animations of geographic data. I give a few examples using data from Nashville Open Data.
Author

Max Rohde

Published

January 6, 2021

Code
library(tidyverse)
library(ggmap)
library(gganimate)

# ggplot2 themes
library(cowplot)

# Formatting of HTML tables
library(kableExtra)

Overview

Animating your ggplot2 visualizations is easy using the gganimate package. But did you also know that gganimate can be used with the ggmap package to animate geographic data? Using data from Nashville Open Data, we’ll create an animation to visualize the development of parks in Nashville over time.

Data cleaning and exploration

First, let’s load in the data.

Code
# Read in data
df <-
  read_csv("Parks_Property_2016.csv") %>%
  janitor::clean_names() %>%
  select(lat, long = lon, year_established = year_estab, acres, park_name =  common_nam)
Code
df %>% 
  kable(format = "html") %>%
  kable_styling("striped") %>%
  scroll_box(height="500px")
lat long year_established acres park_name
3.607738e+01 -86.95922 1988 69.8600000 Harpeth River
3.605943e+01 -86.93816 1972 9.8800000 Harpeth Knoll
3.607160e+01 -86.93354 1982 17.1400000 Red Caboose
3.615017e+01 -86.92646 2007 809.5900000 Bells Bend
3.626076e+01 -86.91984 1996 2168.7920000 Beaman
3.605688e+01 -86.90744 1937 1113.1200000 Edwin Warner
3.613620e+01 -86.88757 2012 8.5300000 H. G. Hill
3.606729e+01 -86.88420 1926 1991.5600000 Percy Warner
3.615454e+01 -86.87071 1964 25.2400000 Charlotte
3.631718e+01 -86.87022 1989 18.3800000 Joelton
3.616150e+01 -86.86422 1952 33.4500000 West
3.617850e+01 -86.83915 1964 12.2600000 Bordeaux Garden
3.611866e+01 -86.83532 1988 3.2400000 Woodmont
3.615925e+01 -86.83257 1947 11.2800000 Boyd -Taylor
3.634344e+01 -86.86116 2013 98.4100000 Paradise Ridge
3.610406e+01 -86.86017 1988 8.3900000 Parmer
3.620875e+01 -86.82747 1964 54.2000000 Hartman
3.613357e+01 -86.82402 1927 13.0700000 Elmington
3.615638e+01 -86.85505 2014 11.2500000 England
3.616553e+01 -86.82243 1912 30.7000000 Hadley
3.619058e+01 -86.82113 1954 261.1700000 Rhodes
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.3400000 East Jr. Tennis Courts
3.620718e+01 -86.85206 2012 34.8500000 Mullins
3.613922e+01 -86.84705 1938 208.9800000 McCabe
3.615153e+01 -86.84464 1907 9.9800000 Richland
3.621440e+01 -86.84351 1980 16.8100000 Bordeaux-Timothy
3.615160e+01 -86.79200 1975 0.5900000 Owen Bradley
3.627492e+01 -86.81879 1978 19.7000000 Whites Creek
3.615774e+01 -86.81796 1969 1.5000000 McKissack
3.617482e+01 -86.81664 1983 7.3600000 Fisk
3.611058e+01 -86.80866 1999 1.5300000 Sally Beaman
3.613682e+01 -86.80631 1978 7.6500000 Dragon
3.609537e+01 -86.80484 1973 13.0300000 Green Hills
3.617866e+01 -86.80315 1909 1.6000000 Elizabeth
3.613167e+01 -86.80244 1996 1.7100000 St. Bernard
3.616257e+01 -86.79951 1901 8.1200000 Watkins
3.615941e+01 -86.79734 1979 0.8600000 Edmondson
3.614940e+01 -86.81340 1903 125.1400000 Centennial
3.617086e+01 -86.79474 2000 0.4000000 Hope Gardens
3.618075e+01 -86.78999 1910 6.6300000 Morgan
3.614644e+01 -86.78956 2012 0.3500000 Flora Wilson
3.615004e+01 -86.78945 1975 2.3100000 Tony Rose
3.611917e+01 -86.78919 1945 20.4100000 Sevier
3.619941e+01 -86.78749 1969 3.4200000 Lock One
3.604615e+01 -86.75473 1979 6.9500000 Granbery
3.614350e+01 -86.78345 1960 25.0800000 Rose
3.616269e+01 -86.78181 2001 0.2800000 Church Street
3.613750e+01 -86.78087 1914 15.9000000 Reservoir
3.613438e+01 -86.77809 1981 1.3200000 Neil
3.616685e+01 -86.77809 2006 6.0100000 Public Square
3.615921e+01 -86.77682 2005 2.6700000 Walk of Fame
3.616832e+01 -86.75391 1963 7.9600000 Kirkpatrick
3.621581e+01 -86.75174 1983 26.2800000 Oakwood
3.617000e+01 -86.78000 1977 3.4900000 Bicentennial
3.616222e+01 -86.77611 2000 0.3100000 Commerce Center
3.616424e+01 -86.77530 1930 0.6600000 Fort Nashborough
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Crieve Hall School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Jordonia School Playground
3.614503e+01 -86.77421 1928 57.3900000 Fort Negley
3.616256e+01 -86.77404 1983 5.2900000 Riverfront
3.623509e+01 -86.77146 1973 10.4600000 Parkwood
3.625341e+01 -86.77143 2003 12.1300000 Willow Creek
3.607724e+01 -86.72783 2007 13.5300000 Caldwell
3.616249e+01 -86.77058 2012 4.7551980 Cumberland
3.618177e+01 -86.76702 1920 11.1300000 McFerrin
3.614385e+01 -86.76534 1913 6.4400000 Dudley
3.627176e+01 -86.74802 1965 321.4600000 Cedar Hill
3.617057e+01 -86.74634 1996 0.5600000 Shelby Walk
3.610819e+01 -86.74541 2006 0.7430000 Turner School
3.617793e+01 -86.76230 1963 31.9400000 Douglas
3.617287e+01 -86.76041 1916 10.6500000 East Park
3.618830e+01 -86.75971 1963 18.4500000 Cleveland
3.620367e+01 -86.75968 1991 6.8100000 Tom Joy
3.615160e+01 -86.75898 1983 0.4000000 Mildred Shute
3.615007e+01 -86.75654 1913 2.2200000 Napier
3.611188e+01 -86.74425 1939 8.7700000 Coleman
3.617516e+01 -86.74182 1921 0.1800000 Bass
3.608775e+01 -86.74002 0 196.5900000 Grassmere
3.606692e+01 -86.73968 1978 13.6700000 Whitfield
3.619271e+01 -86.73947 1953 2.4400000 Eastland
3.617616e+01 -86.73717 2013 2.2300000 Lockeland Springs
3.617055e+01 -86.73295 1912 343.3100000 Shelby
3.618291e+01 -86.70550 1997 950.1800000 Shelby Bottoms
3.619700e+01 -86.72762 1972 19.1400000 South Inglewood
3.622800e+01 -86.72445 1995 5.7000000 Litton
3.609511e+01 -86.71480 1973 35.6800000 Paragon Mills
3.609215e+01 -86.70763 2003 4.1900000 Providence
3.605723e+01 -86.70645 1982 26.9400000 Pitts
3.624415e+01 -86.70246 1956 5.7300000 Lock Two
3.626582e+01 -86.70099 1988 30.7400000 Madison
3.610830e+01 -86.69954 1963 76.0100000 Seven Oaks
3.618991e+01 -86.68239 1966 374.3000000 Two Rivers
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Andrew Jackson School Playground
3.608808e+01 -86.67803 1978 79.9400000 Ezell
3.605559e+01 -86.67340 1950 7.9800000 Antioch
3.618528e+01 -86.66682 2002 74.3800000 Heartland
3.620519e+01 -86.65257 1965 649.7100000 Peeler
3.609890e+01 -86.63865 2007 24.9800000 Una
3.600102e+01 -86.63764 1971 6.2500000 Crawford
3.624013e+01 -86.63373 2011 4.4000000 Lakewood
3.618753e+01 -86.63272 2006 9.7600000 Stone Hall
3.610490e+01 -86.62597 1980 381.3600000 Hamilton Creek
3.599103e+01 -86.61878 1983 274.1300000 Cane Ridge
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Kings Lane School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Dan Mills School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Pennington Bend School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Schwab School Playground
3.617756e+01 -86.61507 1999 22.1900000 Hermitage
3.617318e+01 -86.79860 1984 0.6800000 Monroe
3.618239e+01 -86.85325 1963 19.7800000 City Cemetery
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Tulip Grove School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Hermitage School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Hattie Cotton School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Rosebank School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Stanford School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Hickman Elm School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Cockrill School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Park Ave School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Jones Paideia School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 1.0200000 Hillwood School Tennis Courts
3.610288e+01 -86.68115 2006 64.1700000 Soccer Complex
3.618239e+01 -86.85325 1976 5.0000000 County Cemetery
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Glencliff School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.6800000 Glencliff Tennis Courts
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Lakeview School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Norman Binkley School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Haywood School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.5100000 Bellevue Tennis Courts
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Moss School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.5100000 Ewing Park Tennis Courts
3.619124e+01 -86.81393 1934 46.4800000 Buena Vista
3.619149e+01 -86.81267 1934 4.9700000 Potters Field
3.613298e+01 86.90497 2003 14.1400000 Brookmeade
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Stratton School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Dupont School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Neely's Bend School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.5100000 Neely's Bend Tennis Courts
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.5100000 Maplewood Tennis Courts
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Percy Priest School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Tusculum School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.5100000 Mcmurray Tennis Courts
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Cole School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Mt. View School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Charlotte School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Old Center School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Paragon Mills School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Whitsett School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Chadwell School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.6800000 Hillsboro Tennis Courts
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Tom Joy School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Una School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Sylvan Park School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.6800000 Overton Tennis Courts
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Amquie School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Harpeth School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Julia Green School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Alex Green School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Mcgavock School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Ruby Major School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Cora Howe School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Shayne School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Dodson School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Maxwell School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.5100000 Stratford Tennis Courts
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Fall-Hamilton School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Edmonson Library Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Hull Jackson School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Ross School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.5100000 Granbery School Tennis Courts
0.000000e+00 0.00000 0 0.3400000 Antioch Tennis Courts
3.624002e+01 -86.64811 2012 84.0000000 Crooked Branch
3.611668e+01 -86.78903 2013 5.4000000 Gale Lane
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.1345503 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
3.625271e+01 -86.64679 2013 6.0100000 Old Hickory Baseball
3.625579e+01 -86.64605 2013 2.4100000 Rachel's Walk
3.626437e+01 -86.65058 2013 0.4500000 Veterans
3.626542e+01 -86.64965 2013 13.5800000 Old Hickory
3.626393e+01 -86.65150 2013 0.1200000 Old Hickory Community Center
3.625664e+01 -86.65259 2013 1.6100000 Old Hickory Arts
3.625845e+01 -86.64896 2013 2.3900000 12th Street Ballfield
3.611722e+01 -86.71963 2013 62.6100000 Whitsett
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2003 1.5553245 Stones River Greeenway - Two Rivers to Lytle
3.601296e+01 -86.69024 2013 85.6200000 Mill Creek
3.618238e+01 -86.65910 2013 615.9000000 Lytle Farm
3.616015e+01 -86.77186 2015 12.5400000 Ascend Amphitheater
3.605297e+01 -86.65626 2014 12.1363239 Southeast Community Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2003 0.4646216 Stones River Greeenway - Two Rivers to Lytle
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2003 2.3579139 Stones River Greeenway - Two Rivers to Lytle
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2003 0.1121120 Stones River Greeenway - Two Rivers to Lytle
1.735803e+06 666357.14396 2012 0.6655799 Gulch Greenway
1.736155e+06 665443.67692 2015 0.4948844 Gulch Greenway
1.737172e+06 670336.24990 2001 0.2594513 Cumberland River Greenway - Bicentennial Connector
3.619003e+01 -86.64606 2015 172.4690974 Ravenwood
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2001 2.5000000 Cumberland River Greenway - Bicentennial Connector
3.611345e+01 -86.77666 2012 0.3481739 Browns Creek Park
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2001 0.7298034 Cumberland River Greenway - SB trailhead
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.0493584 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.0818948 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.0117001 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 1.7948271 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.1613896 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.0167640 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.2653782 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 11.9566555 Whites Creek Greenway - Hartman Park
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2005 2.7587219 Whites Creek Greenway - Hartman Park
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.8719442 Whites Creek Greenway - Hartman Park
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 1.0000000 Whites Creek Greenway - Hartman Park
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.5361007 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.6990988 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 2.1957676 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.6213730 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 1.0171761 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.8803449 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 1.4035318 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.1757014 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.1910113 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.3268539 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.8981220 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.1643947 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.8378213 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 2.2856454 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.1554352 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.4177268 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.6409715 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 0.2436326 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.6941219 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.1009122 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.1245130 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2001 0.2207411 Cumberland River Greenway - Bicentennial Connector
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2001 0.4808856 Cumberland River Greenway - Bicentennial Connector
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2001 1.0315835 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2001 0.0586311 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2009 1.8924259 Cumberland River Greenway - Boyd Taylor
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2001 1.1242000 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0.000000e+00 0.00000 1995 4.7682243 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Morton Mill
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 23.1109609 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Warner Exchange
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2013 33.2810709 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Harpeth Bend
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2013 3.1920090 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Harpeth Valley
0.000000e+00 0.00000 1995 9.4195271 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Morton Mill
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2013 9.0121617 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Harpeth Crest
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2013 4.0313277 Harpeth River Greenway - Harpeth Springs
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2013 12.0255760 Harpeth River Greenway - Harpeth Springs
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 7.8561414 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 1.4861100 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 1.8113980 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 7.1464777 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 10.9477867 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 5.5703800 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 2.4222613 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2013 0.1684959 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Harpeth Bend
0.000000e+00 0.00000 1995 2.2458589 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Morton Mill
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 32.7153412 Mill Creek Greenway - Blue Hole
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 6.8735880 Mill Creek Greenway - Blue Hole
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2001 5.0335253 Mill Creek Greenway - Ezell Park
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2001 3.5095535 Mill Creek Greenway - Ezell Park
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2014 3.5486258 Mill Creek Greenway - Mill Creek Park
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 50.2175012 Mill Creek Greenway - Blue Hole
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 10.5583895 Mill Creek Greenway - Blue Hole
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2015 25.9882102 Mill Creek Greenway-Rivendell
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 2.2191096 Richland Creek Creenway - White Bridge Connector
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2014 9.6707414 Mill Creek Greenway - Mill Creek Park
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2014 0.3969118 Mill Creek Greenway - Mill Creek Park
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 9.5489080 Richland Creek Creenway - White Bridge Connector
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 3.9594254 Richland Creek Creenway - White Bridge Connector
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 1.1946428 Richland Creek Creenway - White Bridge Connector
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2006 1.3220493 Richland Creek Creenway - White Bridge Connector
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 0.0532986 Richland Creek Creenway - Lion's Head Connector
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2004 15.3544355 Richland Creek Creenway -McCabe Loop
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2010 2.0813361 Richland Creek Creenway - Knob Road Connector
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2013 1.7147314 Cumberland River Greenway - Rolling Mill Hill
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2003 3.5618533 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 53.2851401 Seven Mile Creek Greenway - Ellington Ag
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2008 1.5429462 Seven Mile Creek Greenway - Harding Mall
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2013 1.1000000 Cumberland River Greenway - Rolling Mill Hill
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 0.1000000 Smithson School Playground
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2000 16.8742281 Stones River Greenway - Alta Lake
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2003 5.0076261 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2003 0.6513379 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2005 16.6344681 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2014 135.4692117 Whites Creek Greenway - Fontanel
0.000000e+00 0.00000 1999 19.2924154 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2003 6.4750941 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2003 3.7454341 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2000 1.4684997 Stones River Greenway - Alta Lake
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2003 0.1818802 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2014 7.3042493 Whites Creek Community Garden
0.000000e+00 0.00000 2002 6.5039280 Mill Creek Greenway - Whittimore Branch

Before we create the animations, let’s do some data cleaning.

Are parks duplicated?

Code
df %>%
  filter(duplicated(park_name)) %>%
  kable(format = "html") %>%
  kable_styling("striped") %>%
  scroll_box(height="300px")
lat long year_established acres park_name
0 0.0 2003 0.4646216 Stones River Greeenway - Two Rivers to Lytle
0 0.0 2003 2.3579139 Stones River Greeenway - Two Rivers to Lytle
0 0.0 2003 0.1121120 Stones River Greeenway - Two Rivers to Lytle
1736155 665443.7 2015 0.4948844 Gulch Greenway
0 0.0 2001 2.5000000 Cumberland River Greenway - Bicentennial Connector
0 0.0 2008 0.0818948 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2008 0.0117001 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2008 1.7948271 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2008 0.1613896 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2008 0.0167640 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2008 0.2653782 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2005 2.7587219 Whites Creek Greenway - Hartman Park
0 0.0 2004 0.8719442 Whites Creek Greenway - Hartman Park
0 0.0 2006 1.0000000 Whites Creek Greenway - Hartman Park
0 0.0 2008 0.5361007 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2008 0.6990988 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2004 2.1957676 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2008 0.6213730 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2004 1.0171761 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.8803449 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 1.4035318 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.1757014 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.1910113 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.3268539 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.8981220 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.1643947 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.8378213 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 2.2856454 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.1554352 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.4177268 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2008 0.6409715 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2008 0.2436326 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2004 0.6941219 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.1009122 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2004 0.1245130 Cumberland River Greenway - Metro Center
0 0.0 2001 0.2207411 Cumberland River Greenway - Bicentennial Connector
0 0.0 2001 0.4808856 Cumberland River Greenway - Bicentennial Connector
0 0.0 2001 1.0315835 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2001 0.0586311 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 2001 1.1242000 Cumberland River Greenway - Downtown
0 0.0 1995 9.4195271 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Morton Mill
0 0.0 2013 12.0255760 Harpeth River Greenway - Harpeth Springs
0 0.0 2006 1.4861100 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0 0.0 2006 1.8113980 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0 0.0 2006 7.1464777 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0 0.0 2006 10.9477867 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0 0.0 2006 5.5703800 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0 0.0 2006 2.4222613 Harpeth River Greenway - River Walk
0 0.0 2013 0.1684959 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Harpeth Bend
0 0.0 1995 2.2458589 Harpeth River Greenway - Warner - Morton Mill
0 0.0 2002 6.8735880 Mill Creek Greenway - Blue Hole
0 0.0 2001 3.5095535 Mill Creek Greenway - Ezell Park
0 0.0 2002 50.2175012 Mill Creek Greenway - Blue Hole
0 0.0 2002 10.5583895 Mill Creek Greenway - Blue Hole
0 0.0 2014 9.6707414 Mill Creek Greenway - Mill Creek Park
0 0.0 2014 0.3969118 Mill Creek Greenway - Mill Creek Park
0 0.0 2006 9.5489080 Richland Creek Creenway - White Bridge Connector
0 0.0 2006 3.9594254 Richland Creek Creenway - White Bridge Connector
0 0.0 2006 1.1946428 Richland Creek Creenway - White Bridge Connector
0 0.0 2006 1.3220493 Richland Creek Creenway - White Bridge Connector
0 0.0 2013 1.1000000 Cumberland River Greenway - Rolling Mill Hill
0 0.0 2003 5.0076261 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0 0.0 2003 0.6513379 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0 0.0 2005 16.6344681 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0 0.0 1999 19.2924154 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0 0.0 2003 6.4750941 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0 0.0 2003 3.7454341 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam
0 0.0 2000 1.4684997 Stones River Greenway - Alta Lake
0 0.0 2003 0.1818802 Stones River Greenway - Lebanon Pk to Dam

These look like errors so we will remove them.

Code
df <-
df %>%
  filter(!(lat == 0),
         !(long == 0)) %>%
  distinct(park_name, .keep_all = TRUE)

We also need to remove unreasonable lat/long values.

Code
df <-
df %>%
  filter(!(abs(lat) >= 180),
         !(abs(long) >= 180))
Code
# Convert all long values to negative because of an error
df$long <- abs(df$long) * -1

How many parks are there?

Code
(num_parks <-nrow(df))
[1] 123

123 parks in Nashville – not bad!

Which years are represented in the data?

Code
range(df$year_established)
[1]    0 2015

Strange, it looks like the oldest park was established in year “0”. This must be a mistake.

Code
# Newest 5 parks
sort(df$year_established) %>% tail()
[1] 2013 2013 2014 2014 2015 2015
Code
# Oldest 5 parks
sort(df$year_established) %>% head()
[1]    0 1901 1903 1907 1909 1910

The true range of the data is 1901 - 2015. It looks like the park recorded as being established in year zero was a mistake. Let’s remove it from the dataset.

Code
df <-
  df %>%
  filter(year_established != 0)

Now let’s take a look at the distribution of the years when parks were established. First, we’ll make a histogram.

Code
df %>%
  ggplot() +
  aes(year_established) +
  geom_histogram(bins=30, color="black", fill="grey") +
  labs(
    title = "Number of parks established in Nashville per year",
    subtitle = "",
    x= "Year Established",
    y= "Frequency") +
  cowplot::theme_cowplot(font_family = "Source Sans Pro",
                         font_size = 12)

The rate of new park development looks to be increasing over time. An ECDF plot supports this observation.

Code
df %>%
  ggplot()+
  aes(year_established) +
  stat_ecdf() +
  labs(
    title = "Cumulative distribution of Nashville parks over time",
    subtitle = "",
    x= "Year Established",
    y= "ECDF") +
  cowplot::theme_cowplot(font_family = "Source Sans Pro",
                         font_size = 12)

Creating the Animation

Now that we’ve cleaned and explored the data, let’s create an animation with gganimate and ggmap. I would like to visualize the development of Nashville’s parks by year.

First, let’s try to just plot the locations of all the parks. Luckily, the (latitude, longitude) coordinates are provided.

We start with the qmplot() function from ggmap, which is a shortcut for plotting on maps, just like qplot() in ggplot2. We pass in the latitude and longitude coordinates and the data frame. The argument maptype = "toner-lite" indicates the type of basemap to use as the background. We also specify alpha=0.5 so we can see when the points overlap. I would like larger parks to be represented by larger circles, so we can map size to acreage by aes(size=acres). Then we add the extra theming using the cowplot package.

Code
qmplot(long, lat, data = df, maptype="toner-lite", alpha=0.5) + 
  aes(size=acres) +
  labs(
    title = "Nashville Parks",
    x= "Longitude",
    y= "Latitude",
    caption = "Area corresponds to acreage \n Data available from Nashville Open Data") +
  cowplot::theme_cowplot(font_family = "Source Sans Pro",
                         font_size = 12) +
  theme(legend.position = "none")

Looks pretty good already. Now let’s make this into an animation!

We will add the transition_states() function from gganimate and specify that each state of the animation is determined by year_established. We also set subtitle = "Year: {closest_state}" to display the year of the current frame.

Code
qmplot(x=long, y=lat, data = df) + 
  aes(size=acres, group=year_established) +
  labs(
    title = "Nashville Parks",
    subtitle = "Year: {closest_state}",
    x= "Longitude",
    y= "Latitude",
    caption = "Area corresponds to acreage \n Data available from Nashville Open Data") +
  cowplot::theme_cowplot(font_family = "Source Sans Pro",
                         font_size = 12) +
  theme(legend.position = "none") +
  transition_states(year_established)

It’s animated now, but there are two problems.

First, the points are disappearing after each year. We can add shadow_mark(color="black") to have the points stay on the plot. We specify that the old points are colored black so that we can color the current points red, to highlight which points were just displayed.

Second, the passage of time is not constant. We want to have each frame change in increments of one year. In our current animation, the years are skipping between the years present in the data. To fix this, we convert year_established to a factor, and fill in the missing years.

Code
df$year_established <-
  df$year_established %>%
  # convert to factor
  as.factor() %>%
  # add extra years
  fct_expand(1900:2019 %>% as.character) %>%
  # sort years
  fct_relevel(1900:2019 %>% as.character)

Now that we’ve made those changes, let’s try again.

Code
qmplot(long, lat, data = df,
       maptype = "toner-lite", alpha=0.5, color="red") + 
  aes(size=acres, group=year_established) +
  labs(
    title = "Nashville Parks",
    subtitle = "Year: {closest_state}",
    x= "Longitude",
    y= "Latitude",
    caption = "Area corresponds to acreage \n Data available from Nashville Open Data") +
  cowplot::theme_cowplot(font_family = "Source Sans Pro",
                         font_size = 12) +
  theme(legend.position = "none") +
  transition_states(year_established) +
  shadow_mark(color="black")

Looks good! But wait a second… the animation only goes to 1950. Wasn’t it supposed to go to 2015? This is a little quirk of gganimate. By default, the animation is capped at 100 frames. For the transition_states() animation, by default a single frame is allocated for each state, and another frame is allocated for transitions between states. So 100 frames can represent 50 years of data. The animation is cut short because we have more than 50 years of data.

Let’s fix this by saving the animation to a variable, and then using the animate() function to increase the number of frames.

Code
parks_anim <- 
  qmplot(long, lat, data = df,
       maptype = "toner-lite", alpha=0.5, color="red") + 
  aes(size=acres, group=year_established) +
  labs(
    title = "Nashville Parks",
    subtitle = "Year: {closest_state}",
    x= "Longitude",
    y= "Latitude",
    caption = "Area corresponds to acreage \n Data available from Nashville Open Data") +
  cowplot::theme_cowplot(font_family = "Source Sans Pro",
                         font_size = 12) +
  theme(legend.position = "none") +
  transition_states(year_established) +
  shadow_mark(color="black")

animate(
  parks_anim,
  nframes=300, # number of frames to compute
  )

My preferred method of rendering the animation is to use ffmpeg, instead of the default GIF renderer, because it creates videos (.mp4) rather than GIFs. You will need to install ffpmeg on your computer separately. Using ffmpeg also allows for finer control over the frame rate of the animation and creates smaller files. I’ll show how to use it below.

The animate() function has parameters for duration (total duration in seconds), fps (frames per second), and nframes (total number of frames). You can specify any two. For our case, we give the duration and number of frames, and gganimate figures out the proper frame rate to fit the specified number of frames into the specified number of seconds.

We also set res=300 to increase the resolution. This has the side effect of making the font appear larger, so we decrease the font size in the call to theme_cowplot().

Be warned that this may take a bit of time to animate. Here’s the final result!

Code
parks_anim <- 
  qmplot(long, lat, data = df,
       maptype = "toner-lite", alpha=0.5, color="red") + 
  aes(size=acres, group=year_established) +
  labs(
    title = "Nashville Parks",
    subtitle = "Year: {closest_state}",
    x= "Longitude",
    y= "Latitude",
    caption = "Area corresponds to acreage \n Data available from Nashville Open Data") +
  cowplot::theme_cowplot(font_family = "Source Sans Pro",
                         font_size = 10) +
  theme(legend.position = "none") +
  transition_states(year_established) +
  shadow_mark(color="black")

animate(
  parks_anim,
  duration=15, # duration of the animation in seconds
  nframes=768, # number of frames to compute
  height = 6,
  width = 6,
  units = "in",
  res = 300, # resolution of the output
  renderer = ffmpeg_renderer() # render to video with ffmpeg
  )